Open access

Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.
In order to reflect actual practice in providing two different types of open access, the further distinction between gratis open access and libre open access was added in 2006 by the principal drafter of the original BOAI definition. Gratis open access refers to online access free of charge, and libre open access refers to online access free of charge plus some additional re-use rights. Libre open access covers the kinds of open access defined in the Budapest Open Access Initiative, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. The re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses; these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors.
No-fee open access journals, also known as "platinum" or "diamond" have no fees for readers and no article processing charges or publication fees for authors. They use a variety of business models. As summarized by Peter Suber: "Some no-fee OA journals have direct or indirect subsidies from institutions like universities, laboratories, research centers, libraries, hospitals, museums, learned societies, foundations, or government agencies. Some have revenue from a separate line of non-OA publications. Some have revenue from advertising, auxiliary services, membership dues, endowments, reprints, or a print or premium edition. Some rely, more than other journals, on volunteerism. Some undoubtedly use a combination of these means".
Open access monographs are subsidized through a variety of means as well. Knowledge Unlatched and unglue.it crowdsource funding in order to make a work available open access.

 


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